For a transition to a sustainable culture, we must design and rehabilitate the broad swaths of commercial agricultural lands into ecologically sound and economically profitable Permaculture systems. In this class we will explore the dynamics of hedgerows, broad scale water harvesting, soil regeneration, animal and crop rotations, habitat restoration, income diversification, transition timelines, and farm certifying organizations.This course is open to OSU students as well as members of the general public (and you can still sign up). The cost is a very reasonable $300 for the week of June 20-24. And the best part is that while the classroom time is held on the Oregon State campus, most of the course takes place on beautiful farms, especially Farmland LP’s Fern Rd property.
Energy and Organic AgricultureSome may be wondering what is the relationship between Permaculture and Farmland LP, which bills itself as converting conventional farmland to certified organic farmland. Well, organic methods are one of many ways to reduce energy inputs. A life cycle analysis of actual staple crop production in Canada, for example, found that overall energy inputs in organic systems were 39% of conventional inputs per kilogram of grain yielded, or a whopping 61% lower (see table from this paper below). (And go here for discussion of a research approach asking similar questions in the US but using controlled field plot studies). Eco-efficient approaches to land management: a case for increased integration of crop and animal production systems makes a strong argument (as I have on this blog) that savings are even greater when legume-rich pasture and crop systems rotate. Multi-year pastures have a few advantages over annual green manure crops. First, the cost of seed and fuel to plant the pasture is spread out over years instead of just part of a year. Second, pasture roots have time to go deeper and condition soil more completely. Third, soil born disease and weed populations that impact annual crops are not given a chance to grow for multiple years, essentially cleansing the soil for annuals when they return. Fourth, rotational grazing systems build organic matter and nutrients at a faster rate and to a higher level than does a single season of a green manure crop.
Livestock grazing a diverse pasture in a rotating paddock system help build soil fertility
Permaculture is a design system, not a particular production method, and it emphasizes using natural biological cycles as much as possible. For this reason it does have an overlap with organic or agroecological farming systems. But I also see someone with a Permaculture background adding to the potential of a farm.
I can envision Permaculture designers looking at a Farmland LP property and paying attention to the edges of fields more than most traditional farmers would. A lot of action occurs at borders and they can be useful places for adding value. For example, planting trees or a hedge row will reduce wind speed across fields. Less wind means lower stress on plants and animals, such as through less water loss during the summer in crops and by reducing rapid heat loss in livestock during winter cold spells. A hedge row may also shelter and provide food for beneficial insects that end up pollinating crops, and livestock may gain access to browsing forage that balances their diet.
To make farms as resource efficient and productive as possible, while developing greater resilience, is a fabulous challenge. I am eager to bring as many minds towards this goal as I can and hope many students can come and begin learning and contributing their talents.